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The issue of whether quantum effects can affect gravity at cosmological distances still lacks a fundamental understanding, but there are indications of a non-trivial gravitational infrared dynamics. This possibility is appealing for building alternatives to the standard cosmological model and explaining the accelerated expansion of the Universe. In this talk I will discuss some large scale modifications of general relativity due to nonlocal terms, which are assumed to arise at the level of quantum effective action. Nonlocality is a general feature of quantum effective actions for theories with massless degrees of freedom and dynamical mass generation is a typical non-perturbative IR effect. Among several models, cosmological requirements select a single structure of the nonlocal term describing a mass for the conformal mode of the metric. The model fits very well cosmological data and has strong signatures in the tensor sector that could be tested in the future by gravitational-wave detections.

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