Finite Correlation Length Scaling in Lorentz-Invariant Gapless iPEPS Wave Functions

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It is an open question how well tensor network states in the form of an infinite projected entangled-pair states (iPEPS) tensor network can approximate gapless quantum states of matter. In this talk we address this issue for two different physical scenarios: (i) a conformally invariant (2+1)d quantum critical point in the incarnation of the transverse-field Ising model on the square lattice and (ii) spontaneously broken continuous symmetries with gapless Goldstone modes exemplified by the S=1/2 antiferromagnetic Heisenberg and XY models on the square lattice. We find that the energetically best wave functions display finite correlation lengths and we introduce a powerful finite correlation length scaling framework for the analysis of such finite bond dimension (finite-D) iPEPS states. The framework is important (i) to understand the mild limitations of the finite-D iPEPS manifold in representing Lorentz-invariant, gapless many-body quantum states and (ii) to put forward a practical scheme in which the finite correlation length ΞΎ(D) combined with field theory inspired formulas can be used to extrapolate the data to infinite correlation length, i.e., to the thermodynamic limit. The finite correlation length scaling framework opens the way for further exploration of quantum matter with an (expected) Lorentz-invariant, massless low-energy description, with many applications ranging from condensed matter to high-energy physics.